Posted in Computers Mobile Computing Operating Systems

A Look At Mobile Operating Systems

Every computer and similar devices have operating systems which provide the most fundamental functionalities, features and platform for the programs to run. Traditionally the PCs and laptops come with the most popular operating systems such as Windows, Linux, Unix and macOS amongst others. Similarly for mobile devices and tablets the most popular operating systems are Android, iOS, Windows OS and Blackberry OS amongst others. The Windows and Blackberry operating systems have become pretty outdated and the two main operating system that power the majority of the smart phone across the globe are Android and iOS. The iOS operating system is limited to Apple phones whereas the Android OS is installed on most of the non-Apple smart phones.

Understanding the mobile operating systems in more detail

The Android operating system is owned by Google and it is considered as an open source platform for the developers to design their apps as opposed to the Apple’s iOS which is not an open source platform. The Android OS allows for more customization, flexibility and higher number of apps in comparison to the Apple’s iOS. In terms of specific number of apps, there are approximately 2.7 million Android apps as opposed to 2.2 million iOS apps. Though most of the apps are available on both the platforms, conventionally Apple has been a more lucrative platform for the developers thus you are likely to see newer apps on iOS first then Android. However in the recent times, with the gradual increase in the number of Android devices and its increasing stake in the smart phone market, a lot of the developers are focusing their energies on Android, especially outside US. The Google Play store has the most number of free apps, however some of the best mobile apps or games might be exclusive to iOS. It eventually boils down to the choice of the consumer as most of the fundamental and major apps are available on both the platforms or operating systems.

When it comes to the interface of the app store, both the operating systems have their own advantages as well as disadvantages, It is quite a task to organize millions of apps together with the right algorithm and place it in sequence so that it is easy for the end users to navigate effectively. Here both the operating systems, Android as well as iOS, suffer a bit since neither are perfect but both the operating systems interface does the job effectively. The Play store search filter is better with Android and it also allows you to queue as well as install apps from the web browser on the PC. However, it can be argued that iOS provides better recommendations and a slightly better interface but eventually there’s not a huge difference between those two. Both platform’s stores have some dodgy apps that could be potentially harmful however Apple has a stricter policy when it comes to curating and filtering apps. This is a good thing in terms of the quality of the apps however it can be a disadvantage if you for the classic consoles of game emulators.

As far as privacy and security is concerned, the Apple’s iOS is considered to be significantly superior than the Android OS. Apple is very strict in terms of the security framework implementation and ensuring that the privacy of users is very well protected. The Android operating system on the other hand is far more vulnerable to security risks in terms of malware and viruses. Android is also considered to be far more vulnerable when it comes to ensuring the security of the users as there have been a number of security breaches that exposed user data in the recent times. This was a considerable issue for users of adult dating and meet n fuck apps. In fact it was believed that the Ashley Madison hack and leak of users’ personal info was originally a breach on the Android OS. Another thing to note here is the fact that you get uniform and regular updates on iOS from Apple as opposed to Android. This is because Android updates are dependent on specific manufacturers rolling them out on their devices whereas iOS is only specific and limited to Apple and thus there is a better uniform structure with regards to the updates that are available.

When it comes to customization, features and the variety of apps Android leads the way since the open source nature of Android platform allows far more flexibility. Apple limits the number of developers and has stringent regulations in place to limit the developers that can design the app on their platform. This means that Android enjoys a lot of features ahead of iOS and there is a large variety of apps available on the Android platform. Android also provides its users with the choice of apps other than the ones available on the Play store. This means that Android users can download APKs for different apps from the third party sources. It is important to note that if the users choose to download apps from third party then they might be potentially exposed to malware.

Posted in Computers Operating Systems

History of Operating Systems

We all make use of the operating system on a daily basis but never think about it. Every device either it is a laptop or smartphone needs an operating system. There are a lot of things that you need to understand operating systems. Their creation, their first use, when were they actually developed, and how did they actually evolve? Operating systems are the foundation of all of the functions that we utilized on our computers and smart devices. When it comes to creating documents, playing games, or any other function on a computer, it starts with the operating system. This also includes browsing the internet. All of this core functioning operates seamlessly behind the scenes. So surely, no one is browsing a local hookup site like and considering their operating system. They are just enjoying utilities and applications that it allows.

The First Generation Operating Systems (1940 -early 1950’s)

Of course, there were electronic computers in use by the year 1940s. But these were not created with the need for an operating system. At this point, programming was done by using machine language. They were also making use of plug-boards through wiring them for controlling the basic functions of the machine. At this point, computers were just in use for solving very simple mathematical calculations. Hence there was no need for any operating system.

The Second Generation (1955s-1965s)

So, it was in the year 1955, the first operating system was actually introduced. It was named GMOs and this was actually created by General Motors. This operating system was created for 701 machines by IBM. These were the operating systems that were later named as single-stream batch processing systems. The reason behind this was they were actually submitting the data in groups.

Later they named these machines as mainframes. These mainframes were used by professional operators and they were used in large computer rooms. Because of their high price, they were only reachable and used by large corporations and government agencies. Common people were not able to afford these mainframes.

The Third Generation (1965s-1980s)

By the end of the 1960s, the developers of operating systems were started developing multi-programming systems. These computer programs were capable of performing multiple jobs at the same time. This was the milestone and multi-programming was one of the major turning points in the development of operating systems.

Through this multi-programming, they were able to keep the CPU busy and achieved 100% utilization of CPU. There is another major growth that happened at the same time and that is the development of minicomputers. The early developments were DEC PDP-1 in the year 1961. The cost of this minicomputer was $120000.

These minicomputers later open the doors for the development of more and more PDPs. Later PDPs are the ones that lead the right direction for the development of personal computers. But the actual development of personal computers happened by the fourth generation.

The Fourth Generation (1980s-Till Date)

It was the fourth generation operating system that leads to the creation of personal computing. These resembled the minicomputers that were developed in the third generation. But the best part was they were affordable and they were costing a small bit of the actual cost of third-generation minicomputers.

The personal computer was the best gift through this every individual started using a computer. This made a lot of changes in the usage of computers since earlier minicomputers were just owned by large corporations since they were of the high cost. This was the generation that led to the birth of operating systems like Windows operating system and Microsoft. In the year 1975, the Windows operating system was developed and it was because of the vision by Bill gates. Paul Allen and Gates had a clear vision to take the personal computers to the next level.

MS-DOS was introduced in the year 1981 and but at that point, it was not easy for people to learn and understand the cryptic commands which needed. Later Windows started leading the industry and even today it is the most used operating system.

Apart from Microsoft, Apple was the other company that releases operating systems. It was in the 1980s they created their first operating system. Apple Macintosh was created by Steve Jobs and this brought a huge success. The best part was, Apple Macintosh was super-friendly. Later releases of Windows were completely influenced by Apple Macintosh. Even today, these are the two companies that are in competition. Today each and every electronic device needs an operating system and even motor vehicles and ATM machines. If you want to name the most popular operating system today on Smartphones, then it is Android.


In the current decade, each and everybody owns a smartphone and this was the main thing that leads to the creation of popular operating systems. Companies like Google wanted to create the best operating system for Smartphones and they ended up creating Android. There is one more called iOS which is in competition and that is by Apple.

Of course, the history of the operating system looks really short. But you need to understand that it was completely intense. Within a few decades, we have experienced tremendous changes and developments. You will get surprised when you think of batch processing systems evolving to become operating systems like Android which works on your phone.

Minicomputers were making use of operating systems that cannot be compared to today’s iOS or Android. They have evolved so fast and because of that, we are able to make use of everything just in a few clicks.

Bottom Line

We cannot imagine our lives without a Smartphone or a laptop today. To run all these systems you need an operating system that works inside these electronic devices. Without an operating system, none of your electronic devices would work. So, one or another operating system is behind mobile phones, computers, and all kinds of electronic devices. Operating systems are the software which is making this modern society to run smoothly.

The operating system is the backbone for both hardware and software in a device and it is the one that makes them work properly. As the development of the information technology had an origin at some point and it has grown completely, even the operating system. It has grown in a similar way in line with information technology.

Information technology and its development have gifted many things to mankind and one of them is, operating system. Today we can see the operating system running on a device like a Smartphone which is a few inched long. But earlier it was in the form of batch processing and was running on huge computers. This is the evolution of operating systems that happened in a few decades and because of that, we are able to enjoy all kinds of technological amusements.

software licensing
Posted in Computers Operating Systems Software

Software Licenses Explained

What is a software license? A software license is a legal document providing the guidelines and use for the software distribution. It typically contains the end-users with the right to one or more copies of software without violating the copyright. You must be thinking, what is the need for such a license? Every development practice requires us to use some license for our source code at some point. There are many types of licenses for software distribution. The most common ones that are used are provided in detail below:

Public Domain License

Public domain license belongs to the licenses that grant public-domain-like rights or/and act as waivers. They are used to make copyrighted works useful for anyone without circumstances while preventing the complexness of attribution or license compatibility that occur with other permissions. However, in different countries, Public Domain notion may not be defined or defined variously, so utilizing this license can bring certain risks.

Zero/public domain (CC0)

CC0 or Zero/public domain was created to increase the compatibility with legal domains which have no concept of devoting to the public domain. It is obtained by a public domain waiver announcement and a fall-back to the all-permissive authorization.

Permissive Software License

The permissive software license, sometimes also called BSD-like or BSD-style license, is a free software license with least laws on how the software can be redistributed. Such permits require more than just applying the first portions of the licensed code to the innovative designers in your system or the documentation.

The examples of permissive licenses are MIT License, BSD licenses, Apple Public Source License, and the Apache license.

Copyleft Software License

Copyleft is a general approach to building a program in an unconstrained way which requires all the modified and full versions of the policy to be free as well. The Copyleft licenses for software require the essential information to propagate and edit the work, to be made accessible to recipients of the binaries. But what does it mean in practice?

If you do divide your application and use some Copyleft library as part of your request, (even if it’s just the run-time linking to a library) also if you do not charge anything, and even if you do not change that library in any way, then you must make the source code of your application usable for end-users.

Making the source available does not mean users can download it automatically. It might be that you must get a written petition and then send references. You can’t escape the responsibility to make your source code available to end-users.

Well, now you know about the basic license you will need for software distribution. And different types of opening source permit requires you to meet different kinds of obligations if you want to reuse the code. These licenses will help you in reusing and redistribution of the code or software without violation of the copyright. You need to have particular permission before using any software.